International comparisons of national licences

The French debate on national licences has much to learn from comparing the situations in various countries that have already implemented similar systems. The present article carries out such a comparison, drawing in particular on a detailed presentation of the pioneering experience of OhioLINK, one of the earliest consortia to be founded. The analysis reveals that centralising purchases is extremely beneficial in both cost and use. Other examples of consortia from across the world are likewise studied in terms of their models of government, financing, and management. This reveals a variety of situations that could be useful in shaping France's plans in this arena.