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Library, Documentation and Information Sciences in Ibero America

Towards a conceptualization and consensual definition

José López Yepes

Martha Sabelli

Introduction

Names for the discipline

In Ibero-America (Latin America, Spain and Portugal), our disciplines, i.e. Library Science / Documentation science / Information Science have been named in a variety of ways by faculties, schools and colleges, as well as by journals, professional associations and academic events. Nonetheless, their historical backgrounds and social and cultural contexts have contributed to building, especially in Latin America, an integrative approach at an early stage between Library and Documentation sciences, and, in recent decades with Information Science as well.

What should we call this discipline or, perhaps, group of disciplines? Library Science? Librarianship? Documentation? Information Science? Cultural heritage science? And how can we unanimously name the diverse components, factors and aspects of the documentary activities, such as, for example, the professional? Librarian, documentalist, documentation professional, information professional…? If it is true that there is no unanimity in the terms we use, it leads to the suspicion that these doubts may signal a lack of unanimity in their concepts, their definitions and in their epistemological foundations. Both conflicts, left unresolved, will necessarily cause uncertainty when planning teaching and research lines, when establishing the objectives of the discipline and for the scholar or professional that will develop in our schools. It is therefore imperative to construct a paradigm, a theory of documentation, which is always up to date and the subject of preliminary studies, serving as a cornerstone for our schools and for the correct interpretation by the social body 1.

In the Ibero-American area, we found the following names for our field of knowledge:

Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información (Library Science and Information Science)

Bibliotecología y Ciencias de la Información (Library Science and Information Sciences)

Bibliotecología y Documentación (Library Science and documentation)

Bibliotecología y Estudios de Información (Library Science and Information Studies)

Bibliotecología y Estudios de la Información (Library Science and Studies of Information)

Bibliotecología, Documentación e Información (Library Science, documentation and information)

Biblioteconomía (Librarianship)

Biblioteconomía con habilitación en Gestión de la Información (Librarianship with qualification in information management)

Biblioteconomía e Información (Librarianship and information)

Biblioteconomía y Documentación (Librarianship and documentation)

Ciencia de la Información (Information Science)

Ciencia de la Información con habilitación en Biblioteconomía (Information Science with Qualification in Librarianship)

Ciencia de la Información y Documentación (Information Sciences and documentation)

Ciencias bibliotecarias y de la Información (Library and Information Sciences)

Ciencias de la Información (Information Sciences)

Ciencias de la Información documental (Documentary Information Sciences)

Ciencias y Tecnologías de la Información (Information Sciences and Technologies)

Documentación (Documentation)

Regarding the designation of schools, we find:

a) a marked predominance of schools related to philosophy, humanities and education;

b) a growing number of Librarianship-specific schools;

c) one of them being linked with communication studies;

d) a single case where Library Science Studies are part of a technical school.

Even though the majority of schools’ names mention social sciences, humanities and education, there are a remarkable number of specific schools which jointly refer to Library Science, Information Sciences and Communications. Lastly, we found one case of a School of Archival Studies.

Specificity is evident at the departmental level. In Brazil there’s a remarkable majority using the term Information Science. Also present are the synonyms Librarianship and Library Science. There are a couple of cases where Documentation is used, but this is a term rarely used in the Ibero-American area. There is also a case of a Department of physics and mathematics, though this seems to be a unique case.

However, the traditional designations of the degrees remain. There’s a majority of degrees in Librarianship / Library Science, but the degrees with the term Information are increasing. So is one that is traditionally European: Information and documentation science (Brazil). There are also a couple of degrees in Archival Studies 2.

The disciplines and the information networks from the 1980s and 1990s

Despite the multiplicity of terms mentioned above, we find in Latin America, and particularly in South America, an integrative eagerness in the process that took place during the 1980s and 1990s. In contrast, in Europe and the United States, the trend in higher education was for Library Science, Documentation and Information Science to grow apart. This is a historical research line that is open and essential for the in-depth study of our roots, and their unavoidable interrelationships with the social and cultural thinking of the time. It is possible that research analysis would include as hypotheses the late arrival of ICT’s effects, and the changes – or seeming deviations – in the disciplinary foundations. We could also consider the different effects in different countries, where in all likelihood Brazil should not be included in a global approach to the region. Similarly, such research should not fail to consider the effect of the authoritarian governments from the 1970s and 1980s on academia, and in the development of academic disciplines 3. It is interesting to note Octavio Rojas’s integrationist hypothesis on Library Science:

for us [Latin America] the antagonism that exists in industrialized countries, especially the United States, between Library Science and Information Sciences shouldn’t make sense. Developing countries, because of their very nature, are better equipped to pose a particular integrationalist strategy and, why not, to try following different paths4.

Such an approach has been fostered through professional development in the information networks during the decades of the 1980s and 1990s – for example: DOCPAL (Latin American Population Documentation System) of CELADE (Latin American Demographic Centre), CLADES (Latin American Centre for Economic and Social Documentation) of ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean), BIREME (Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences, also known by its original name, Regional Library of Medicine) of PAHO/WHO (Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization).

At the same time there was an academic exchange at regional events, organized by these information networks,

where information professionals got together with researchers and planners. The Information and Development Series, published by the Latin American Centre for Economic and Social Documentation at the time, is the clearest expression of the eagerness to unite theory to Library and Information Science professional practice in an information disciplines context. In this exchange at meetings there was no fragmentation between different areas and information disciplines, nor between their professionals5.

In those years, networks contributed to less fragmentation than is the case nowadays. In this sense, today we observe a growing phenomenon: in Library and Information Science events and publications participation is common by groups distinguishing themselves by not practising professionally while, at the same time, being relatively isolated from the discipline’s everyday practice and issues. To sum up, internal relations between academia – mostly university professors and researchers – and professionals are poor, probably leading as a result to an increase of the conceptual dispersion regarding the discipline.

We will now turn our attention to emerging conceptualizations in the Ibero-American area, and particularly in the Hispanic-Mexican Seminars on Library Science and documentation, the Iberian and Latin America and the Caribbean Encounters of the Association of Education and Research in Information Science of Ibero-America and the Caribbean (EDICIC, former EDIBCIC), and particularly, the recent Project, A theoretical-epistemological analysis of Librarianship and Information Studies. Unity in diversity: Librarianship, documentation and Information Sciences from the Institute of Library and Information Science Research – IIBI (former CUIB, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México- UNAM).

Recent research on the concept in Ibero-American literature

The Research group on epistemological aspects, in a recent seminar that took place at the Institute of Library and Information Science Research (UNAM, Mexico) in October 2011, has produced a number of contributions in establishing the defining features of the discipline and, most importantly, in looking for meeting points allowing a common approach to the diverse theories supported by the members of the Group. These contributions can be found in the group’s website and we will now proceed to compare them with our own theory. They are from professors Eduardo Mancipe (La Salle University, Bogotá), Nathalia Quintero (Antioquia University, Medellín), Cristina Ortega (Minas Gerais University) and Francys Delgado and Johann Pirela (Zulia University, Maracaibo).

Mancipe argues that « to rethink the strong core proposed by Rendón (SID) would be a good starting point to begin the dialogue between disciplines » 6. As is known, the informative-documentary system is composed of five elements: information, document, user, professional and informative-documentary institution 7. Hence Mancipe argues that the « Library Science’s object of study is not information in itself, with no reference to it being an information objectified in a document, managed by an information professional within an informative-documentary institution and that serves to satisfy the information needs of a user who uses this system precisely for that reason » 8.

Another issue raised by Mancipe refers to the disciplines that preceded Information Science. In agreement with Silva and Ribeiro (the other study in which the Colombian professor bases his reflection), previous practical disciplines appear « in a transdisciplinary perspective that integrates them as applied components », without clarifying, for example, the difference between Librarianship and Documentation, and the addition of others such as Organization and Methods, and without justifying their interdisciplinary relationships 9. In both cases – Mancipe argues – « the inter and transdisciplinary process of these disciplines could have as the common core in its study the Information and Documentation System (Sistema de Información y Documentación, SID) formed by the interaction of its five essential elements » 10.

According to Nathalia Quintero, what she identifies as « Library Science and related areas » studies documentary information or recorded information, terms which, as we will see, are not necessarily synonyms. The object of study is treated and developed within the framework of an organization and it is aimed at users in the library or information units with a clear goal: establishing « the communication of human knowledge, the access to cultural products or learning materials that are preserved for their knowledge » 11. Ultimately, our colleague’s answers to the questions that seek to formulate the concept are based in four categories: documentary / recorded information, organization, library, users and communication / access. But she assigns greater relevance to documentary / recorded information, not only as a unifier of all the graphic records disciplines, but also as the basis of their possible differentiation. Quintero argues that Library Science, Documentation and Archival Studies are set up as a communicative system, and this notion « can be closely related to the interesting proposal from Miguel Angel Rendón of considering the documentary information system as the hard core of Library Science » 12.

According to Cristina Ortega, what triggers the documentary activity is, undoubtedly, addressing users’ information needs. The goal of Information Science is « the (specific) intervention on information by means of creating records or inscriptions aimed at enabling their permanence and access for future use » 13. Except for an error on our part, we note that in documentary work one uses information in the form of records; these should be permanent and with the potential of being accessed through – we add – the corresponding transformations and consequent interpretations of time and space. Later Ortega proposes key categories for the understanding of the discipline and, among others, defines Library Science, Archival Studies, Museology (she does not mention the term Documentation) and others, relevant for understanding our theory, as documentary systems, information organization, information mediation and documentary communication 14.

The theoretical contributions from Francys Delgado and Johann Pirela extend some of the ideas we have already commented on and, again, consider « the processes of knowledge mediation as integrating-unifying elements of the epistemological discourse of Information Sciences… they are the core components of the actions of the so-called knowledge organizations » 15. To these authors, the mediation process or « communicative component » may explain the nature of the disciplines that deal with documentary information and its organizations 16.

Library Science / Documentation / Information Science schools and the name of the discipline in the Mercosur

Within the Mercosur, Mercado Común del Sur (Common Southern Market), it is worth noting the meetings between directors and teachers of Library and Information Science Schools from 1996 to 2007 and its reformation with the recent Project « Towards the creation of an Academic Network in Library and Information Science within the Mercosur ». In the first meetings (1997 to 2001) where a large number of academics from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay participated, before the economic and financial crisis of 2002-2003, the conceptualization and debate on the discipline and its designation was scarce, appearing fragmented into different thematic areas, and explicit regarding those subjects related to the disciplinary basis.

The first meeting, Primer Encuentro de Directores de Escuelas de Bibliotecología del Mercosur, was organized in 1996 by the School of Communication and Librarianship from Río Grande Do Sul’s Federal University, Brazil. The second meeting, II Encuentro de Directores y I de Docentes de Escuelas de Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información del MERCOSUR, was held in Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1997, organized by the Library Science Department from Buenos Aires University. The main focus was on establishing common core curricula, and to this end the courses in the Schools’ curricula were grouped into six thematic areas:

1. Theoretical foundations of Library Science and Information Science;

2. Information organization and processing;

3. Information resources and services;

4. Information management;

5 and 6. Research and information technologies in Library Science and Information Science, cutting across the rest of the areas.

The following meetings (1998-2007) 17 focused on:

– the harmonization of curricula and competencies for the information professional;

– the academic management of Library Science and Information Science courses within the Mercosur, and the conceptual foundations, and teaching and research methodologies in the area;

– the political and strategic guidelines for teacher training with a projection towards university extension and research, and the Library Science teacher for the knowledge society;

– the integration of research and teaching;

– the assessment models for the university degrees in Library Science and Information Science;

– converging proposals for the Mercosur;

– and the strategic lines of work to make the regional integration of the Library Science and Information Science Schools in the Mercosur effective and visible.

As part of the new phase in the construction and strengthening of the Academic network in Library Science and Information Science in the Mercosur (2011-2012) it is essential to reanalyze and reflect upon the names of the institutions and the qualifications awarded. In light of the new, emerging epistemological viewpoints from the 1990s (debated in the 2000s) we seek to approach an understandable terminology and, specifically, one that is based on a shared (or at least debated) conceptualization of the discipline in the region.

The study comprises, in a first instance, the degrees that are currently part of the project « Towards the formation of an Academic Network in Library Science and Information Science in the Mercosur: cooperation and exchange to integrate the discipline within the Region » 18, from the following associate Universities and partner organizations:

– Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Facultad de Humanidades, Departamento de Bibliotecología (Misiones National University, Humanities School, Library Science Department); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Departamento de Bibliotecología (La Plata National University, Humanities and Education Sciences School, Library Science Department); Universidad de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Humanidades, Departamento de Documentación (Mar del Plata University, Humanities School, Documentation Department); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Departamento de Bibliotecología (Buenos Aires University, Letters and Philosophy School, Library Science Department);

– Brazil: Universidad Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Departamento de Ciencia de la Información, Campus de Marília, Sao Paulo (Paulista State University, Information Science Department, Marília Campus);

– Paraguay: Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Facultad Politécnica, Licenciatura en Ciencias de la Información (Asunción National University, Polytechnic School, Information Sciences Degree);

– Uruguay: Universidad de la República, Escuela Universitaria de Bibliotecología y Ciencias Afines (EUBCA) (University of the Republic, School of Library Science and Related Areas).

In the following chart we list the names of the degrees and the awarded qualifications from a selection of the aforementioned Schools, between 1985 and 2012.

Names and academic structure of a selection of Library Science Schools in the Mercosur 1985-2012

Illustration
Names and academic structure of a selection of Library Science Schools in the Mercosur 1985-2012

A common feature of the selected Schools from Argentina is their structural location within Humanities Schools (Philosophy, Letters, and Humanities). By contrast, in Uruguay the EUBCA remains today a School that is, hierarchically, directly under the University’s Central Board of Directors, although during the 1990s there were initiatives for EUBCA to join the School of Social Sciences.

The names of the Schools and the awarded qualifications show that there’s a predominance of the term Library Science (Bibliotecología), with a few instances of Documentation (Documentación) as an added term. In these cases the Schools are going through a curricula reform process. The term Information Science accompanies Library Science in both Buenos Aires University (UBA) and La Plata National University (UNLP); both have been influential institutions in the development of our discipline. Moreover, during the 1990s and 2000s both these institutions went through a process that led to replacing the term Documentation with Information Science as the name of their awarded qualifications, and in the case of UBA in the name of the Department as well. In Uruguay, during the first years of the 1990s, protracted discussions took place in EUBCA about changing the name of the School. Various positions were extensively argued, some oriented towards social paradigms, others focusing on technological paradigms. However, a consensus could not be reached and the matter was postponed until it was again undertaken within the framework of a curriculum reform that took place in 2012.

The case of Uruguay merits special consideration in this terminological context. EUBCA’s new curriculum, in place since August 2012, focuses on Information Science recognizing its specificity but also that as:

an interdisciplinary space under construction […]. It is a discipline that, by means of a social and epistemological approach, seeks to understand the meaning and explain the nature, characteristics and behavior of documentary information, and of the process of production, transmission, preservation, search, access and use of information, responding to society through its professional fields19.

The basic proposals in the Plan can be summarized as: coordination, outreach, integration and complementarity between the degrees in Library Science and Archival Studies, through shared missions, foundations and methodologies, with a joint initial course and a set of shared core contents; contextualization of the degrees within the disciplinary development of Information Science; the articulation of Archival Studies and Library Science with Social sciences and Humanities, and in particular with Communication sciences. The projection with a view to creating a School of Information and Communication in 2013 – as an interdisciplinary space formed by EUBCA and the Communication sciences degree – opens up an enriching theoretical exchange about information and communication as a social phenomenon; this exchange has already started with the Academic Development Program on Information and Communication (PRODIC) and the Master’s in Information and Communication which started in late 2011.

The belated but firm assimilation of Documentation sciences, marked by a European – and especially French – influence, as an area of study and professional practice in these countries (post-World War II, and more precisely during the 1960s and 1970s), explains its incorporation into the School’s names, qualifications and curricula during the 1980s. Regarding Information Science, its impact comes from the Anglo-Saxon area – particularly the United States – and is closely related to and dependent on new information technologies, and linked to society’s computerization processes. We can see its assimilation in the case of UBA and UNLP, and in its plural form in the qualification awarded by Asunción National University’s School of Library Science: Information Sciences Degree.

The following phase, centered on ICTs and the impacts of the Information Society, arrived and settled in the region from the mid-1990s, but just like its predecessor, it was a slower process than in central countries. It is certainly a niche for a research line focused on answering questions of the relevance to difficulties in anchoring a paradigm centered on technologies. We should bear in mind that a part of the academic community in Library Science / Documentation / Information Science was addressing and reflecting on ideas and new problems; in short, on the epistemological transformations taking place and, among them, the social paradigms arising from contemporary science.

We believe these debates and reflections merit establishing Historical and Epistemological Research Groups, both at a national level (as is currently taking place in Brazil) and at a regional level, following the emblematic example provided by UNAM’s IIBI. The matter is then to work both inward and outward, connecting with Europe and the Anglo-Saxon world, overcoming fragmentations and applying an integrative view of the discipline.

Towards a concept of Library Science / Information Science.

At present, it is equally necessary to recast the discussion and possible consensus on the aforementioned conceptualization and use of terminology to define our discipline. Therefore, it is our aim in the present work to focus on a review and selection of the main approaches to the concepts and terms mentioned in the events stated above. Specifically, we intend to expose the possible key aspects of coordination and consensus with regards to the documentary-Librarianship space, which encompasses all varieties and comprehends the realities of each country and region of Ibero-America within the context of the current changes provided by virtuality and the information society / societies as well as the impacts on our ever-changing discipline. It shall not stray from its essence and purpose: documentary information and the communities of users who need such information, thus finding and creating valid and genuine knowledge.

To summarize, our significant concerns are to:

1. Provide the discipline with a higher profile in the field of among other disciplines by clarifying its epistemological nature and the role it plays as a science in the service of other sciences;

2. Define its lines of research in a more accurate way;

3. Facilitate the communication of knowledge among members of the scientific community;

4. Configure with greater precision the course of action to be followed in the formation of professional schools;

5. Include specifications regarding the labor market for graduates while seeking new niches that contribute to meeting the information needs of the social body. We believe these are times that provide favorable scenarios for the articulation and consolidation of the unity among information disciplines. It lies within us to undertake the commitment, as teachers, researchers and information professionals related to the Librarianship-documentary field to motivate its construction. We believe that the approaches to our discipline’s concept available in published literature suffer from following parallel streams which do not always take into account in an exhaustive way the diverse input. On the contrary, they tend to work in fields that lead to education and training of specific schools and tendencies. In our case, what we call communicative theory of Librarianship / Documentation / Information Science will settle for:

a) offering a defensible vision of this concept;

b) that doesn’t contradict the contributions of the aforementioned colleagues or other relevant notions.

Following this remark, we propose the following as corollaries of this presentation:

1. Librarianship / Documentation / Information Science is an informative-communicative social science that studies an informative process which generates documentary information; this process consists of retention, retrieval and transformation of messages produced in previous informative processes, and whose messages are transformed into information sources in order to obtain new knowledge or for accurate decision-making. Mancipe’s definition includes these elements, except for stating the provenance of information as « managed by a professional ».

2. The common core or object of this discipline is an informative process that, given its singularities, is called informative-documentary process 20. This expression is a synonym of « information and documentation system » 21 although we would rather reserve this expression to refer to the mechanism that, provided with people, machines and procedures, transforms input information into documentary or output information, within the framework of documentary units or institutions, such as in the definition of documentary systems proposed by Cristina Ortega. Besides, the existence of such a process in the communications area goes in line with other categories mentioned by our Brazilian colleague, such as information mediation and documentary communication. On a similar note we can add the « knowledge mediation processes », as proposed by Francys Delgado and Johann Pirela.

3. The elements of the informative-documentary process are:

i. Issuing subjects: the document’s author and the professionals who process and communicate documentary information.

ii. Documentary message conveyed and recorded in a specific medium which creates a document. This message is called documentary when it has just been incorporated into a medium by the author of the document; it projects into a future in which it may suffer a series of transformations – marginal message, referential message – until its dissemination as an information source to obtain new messages in an endless persistence over time and space (documentary message).

iii. User, recipient subject of a message intended to remedy an information need.

iv. Medium, or documentary information unit where documents are processed and transformed so that they can be used as an information source.

4. These are, therefore, the components of Rendón’s concept of a documentary information system: information, document, user, professional and informative-documentary institution; also the components proposed by Nathalia Quintero: organization, users and communication / access.

5. Documentary information is not just information recorded in a medium, as noted by Cristina Ortega (documented information). It also comes from the transformation of information that was previously kept, and then transformed into an information source to assist decision-making or to obtain new information.

6. Documentary information generated in the aforementioned process comes from the retention of previous messages that a professional keeps, processes and transforms, so that they are turned into an actual information source, from inherent potential to messages kept in any space or time. If contingent information refers to what passes, documentary information refers to what is kept.

7. The transformation from retained information into ready-to-use documentary information takes place within a medium, that is, in organizations or information units.

8. Library Science / Documentation / Information Science is not a transdisciplinary discipline, the sum of documentary disciplines. The unification in a single discipline was in its day carried out by Paul Otlet, it suffered conceptual fragmentations, but it has been reunited again, thanks to the relevance of the information factor. This discipline should actually be called Documentary Information Science since the term Information Science – although prevailing in Ibero-America- doesn’t define what kind of information is being processed.

9. Thanks to information technologies, the informative functions which defined Otlet’s concept have been incorporated by libraries, and therefore we find it very difficult to retain the distinction between Library Science and Documentation.

10. Interdisciplinary relationships take place when Library Science / Documentation / Information Science is applied to other areas of knowledge. This calling turns our discipline into a kind of science for science, thanks to its support of knowledge creation, its dissemination and evaluation, and its participation in the scientific work plan.

11. To sum up, the paradigmatic elements that sustain our discipline’s epistemological foundation would be the following:

i. Science for science;

ii. Documentary communication, including:

– Documentary information

– Informative-documentary process

– Elements of the process: issuing subjects, message, medium, recipients;

iii. Autonomous social science, informative-communicative by nature (transdisci­plinarity);

iv. A science that integrates all documentary disciplines, thus enabling the use of the term Information Sciences;

v. Science applied to all areas of knowledge and all social activities.

12. As a result of what we have stated above, we define Library Science / Documentation / Information Science as an informative-communicative social science that studies an informative process which produces documentary information; this process consists of the retention, retrieval and transformation of messages which were produced in previous informative processes, and whose messages are transformed into and disseminated as information sources to generate new knowledge or to assist the decision-making process.

13. The conceptual dispersion in the discipline is at times fostered by the gap that is often seen between academia and professionals. Such dispersion can be seen in the contents of social networks.

14. The Meetings between Directors and Teachers of Library and Information Science Schools in the Mercosur, starting in 1996, were concerned with the foundations of the discipline – seeking an understandable terminology and a shared conceptualization – as a requisite to properly focus on matters such as designing teaching and research lines with a view to reaching convergent strategies between the Schools in the area.

15. The new curriculum of EUBCA (University of the Republic, Uruguay) shows novel and promising approaches. To begin with, both Library Science and Archival Studies are part of an integrative view within Information Science; furthermore, the epistemological landscape is enriched by the contact with Communication sciences as we have shown on the precedent pages.

J. López Yepes, La Documentación como disciplina: teoría e historia, 2a ed., Pamplona, Eunsa, 1995 (1a ed. Teoría de la Documentación, 1978).

J. López Yepes, “Algunos problemas terminológicos en el dominio de la Bibliotecología y Documentación: una babel terminológico-conceptual”, in Organización del conocimiento: bibliotecología y terminología, Catalina Naumis Peña (coord.), México, Centro Universitario de Investigaciones Bibliotecológicas, UNAM, 2009, p. 435-465.

M. Sabelli, “Las comunidades académicas y las redes de información en Ciencias Sociales en América Latina: la cooperación como estrategia de sobrevivencia y puente para el conocimiento en tiempos difíciles”, Investigación Bibliotecológica, 26 (57), 2012, p. 233-247.

O. Rojas, “La investigación y el desarrollo integral de la Bibliotecología en la región”, Revista Interamericana de Bibliotecología, 6, 1-2, 1983, p. 5-17.

M. Sabelli, “Library and Information Sciences in the information disciplines environment: towards integrative models of disciplines, professional community and information and communication public policies”, in Unity in diversity, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Information Research, 15, 4, 2010 http://informationr.net/ir/15-4/colis720.html.

E. Mancipe, “Los sistemas de información documental (SID) como núcleo común de las disciplinas aplicadas en el campo de la Ciencia de la Información”, Seminario Especializado sobre Epistemología de la Bibliotecología y Estudios de la Información, México DF, IIBI, UNAM, 24-25 October 2011, p. 1 http://infocuib.laborales.unam.mx/~se11s01b/principal.htm.

M. A. Rendón Rojas, “Axiología y ciencia bibliotecológica: los valores en el mundo de la información documental”, Investigación Bibliotecológica, 18, 13, 2004, p. 170-184.

E. Mancipe, op. cit., p. 3.

Ibid., p. 4.

Ibid., p. 6-7.

N.Quintero Castro, “Conceptos y categorías de la bibliología”, Seminario Especializado sobre Epistemología de la Bibliotecología…, op. cit., p. 3 http://infocuib.laborales.unam.mx/~se11s01b/principal.htm.

Ibid., p. 4.

C. Ortega, “Objeto y conceptos de la disciplina”, Seminario especializado sobre epistemología dela bibliotecología…, op. cit. http://infocuib.laborales.unam.mx/~se11s01b/principal.htm.

Ibid., p. 2 and 4-5.

F. Delgado, J. Pirela, J. (2011), “Los procesos de mediación del conocimiento como elementos integradores-unificadores del discurso epistemológico de las ciencias de la información”, Seminario especializado sobre epistemología de la bibliotecología…, op. cit. http://infocuib.laborales.unam.mx/~se11s01b/principal.htm.

Ibid., p. 13.

III Encuentro de Directores y II de Docentes Escuelas de Bibliotecología del MERCOSUR, Santiago, Chile, 1998; IV Encuentro de Directores y el III de Docentes Escuelas de Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información del MERCOSUR, Montevideo, 2000; V Encuentro de Directores y IV de Docentes Escuelas de Bibliotecología del MERCOSUR, Asunción de Paraguay, 2001; VI Encuentro de Directores y V de Docentes Escuelas de Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información del MERCOSUR” Londrina, Brasil, 2002; “VII Encuentro de Directores y VI de Docentes de Escuelas de Bibliotecología del MERCOSUR, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 2004; Encuentro de Directores de Escuelas de Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información del MERCOSUR preparatorio del VIII Encuentro de Directores y VII de docentes” a realizarse en la Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile 2006, Montevideo, 2005; VIII Encuentro de Directores de Escuelas de Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información del MERCOSUR, Valparaíso, Chile, 2007.

Towards the formation of an Academic Network in Library Science and Information Science in the Mercosur: cooperation and exchange to integrate the discipline within the Region http://rbm.eubca.edu.uy/, http://rbm.eubca.edu.uy/sites/default/files/text/Cuadro%20de%20Sintesis.pdf.

Plan de Estudio para las carreras de Grado de la EUBCA: Licenciatura en Bibliotecología y Licenciatura en Archivología, Montevideo, Universidad de la República, Escuela Universitaria de Bibliotecología y Ciencias Afines, 2012.

See Informative-documentary process in José López Yepes, Teoría de la Documentación, Pamplona, EUNSA, 1978, p. 323-329; “Documentary information and documentary process”, in La Documentación como disciplina. Teoría e historia, Pamplona, EUNSA, 1995, p. 317-319; 313-319.

M. A. Rendón Rojas, “Axiología y ciencia bibliotecológica: los valores en el mundo de la información documental”, Investigación Bibliotecológica, 18, 13, 2004, p. 170-184.