Evaluation is now at the heart of university and research sector reform. It is part of a wider overhaul of public policy, bringing a project-based approach (invol¬ving objectives, means, and results) to areas long dominated by means-based approaches. In this context, it can be seen as one of many levers for change that are challenging the principles and values that have long underpinned people’s individual actions. In order for evaluation to act as a tool for action, change, and an organisational learning curve, its meaning must be established. It is possible to do so, provided that all stakeholders in the process are involved; while such tools are indeed necessary, they also require people to work them and to oversee and manage the process of collective action.