For the last 30 years, The University Library General Statistical Survey (ESGBU) has been the national mechanism and regulator of measures of activity of the collections and resources of university libraries. Its comparative approach allows university libraries to position themselves, and for the State to have overall control over them. At present, ESGBU is undergoing major changes. Since 2004, the first change derives from the measurement of access to electronic documents. The second is linked to the implementation of the Constitutional Law relative to laws of finance: in the context of new methods of public finance, which are based on contracts between the State and establishments. Hence, the ESGBU becomes a central component in their performance evaluation.