The financing of municipal libraries with a regional vocation has allowed the construction of new buildings in larger towns. What are their missions ? It is less a question of imagining supplementary services than of conceiving the structural elements which are missing from the French library network. To maintain the continuity of public service for the reader and for research, they should actively participate in publicizing specific collections in their region and in the nationwide circulation of documents. In this way they would realize their true vocation. Their documentary riches demand a high performance operation from them in order to reach the heights of their ambitions. This will necessitate the re-evaluation of the methods of operation against the stakes involved.